The exploration and extraction of oil industrially and economically began in the mid-nineteenth century. Hundreds of years ago, this natural source was used for lighting purposes or as a lubricant.

The invention of the first internal combustion engine and its use in all forms of life today has led to an increase in demand for the extraction and exploitation of fossil fuels. The positive and negative consequences of the expansion of these activities in the oil industry, which is done in order to meet the bulk of energy supply, is an issue that has always been faced by those in charge of this industry.

Effects of drilling fluid waste on soil properties