Calcium Chloride is used in drilling mud with powder or flakes appearance to to supply Calcium ions. Calcium Chloride is one of the drilling fluids weighting agents. It can adjust the activity of the water phase in invert-emulsion mud.
Advantages of Calcium Chloride usage in drilling mud over other weighting agents, is its low price in formulation of solid-free completion brines.
The maximum density obtainable is 11.6 Ibm/gal (SG 1.68) with the addition of Calcium Bromide. Calcium Chloride and other brine completion fluids, eliminate plugging of producing sands often encountered when perforations are made through drilling mud. These brine fluids, free of solids, eliminate the problem of cracking, solidification and settling of solid materials on packers.
Calcium Chloride is used to control the activity of oil-based mud and work over/completion fluids. It is also an effective means of providing high Chloride ion concentration levels in the aqueous phase of mud for balanced activity mud systems, for maximum shale stability.
CaCl2-containing drilling mud can be used in high pressure formations.
It is much easier to dilute this material in water and has the ability to absorb dust from drilling operations inside the well.
Various chemicals and methods are used to melt ice (deicing) roads in the cold seasons of the year. Calcium Chloride is one of the most widely used inorganics for ice melting and deicing. In addition to Calcium Chloride, other substances such as Sodium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Magnesium Acetate are also used.
In cold seasons, Anti-Icing methods can be used to prevent road freezing. In case of frost, different methods and materials are used for deicing. Anti-Icing and deicing methods are described in more detail below.
Introduction:The oil and gas industry is one of the largest and most important industries in the world, which is very important strategically and economically. With the development of environmental solutions in human societies, activities that endanger the environmental system will be seriously considered. For this reason, efforts have been made to reduce the environmental impact of drilling operations, especially in the use of drilling fluids. In this article, the management of green drilling fluid supply chain is investigated. First, the management of the green supply chain and related literature and the role of drilling fluids in the drilling process of oil and gas wells and the environmental effects of these materials if they are not controlled and monitored are stated. Then the management of green supply chain of drilling fluids is examined.
Lost circulation is an occurrence in Formation when drilling fluids is lost into cracks during drilling or cementing operations. Lost circulation in drilling is always examined in two parts: prevention and remedial of loss. Prevention is to take all measures to prevent loss during drilling. This stage is usually done by technically examining the condition of the earth’s layers (geology) and recognizing the geographical area. Lost circulation treatment is also done by using additives appropriate to the structure of the earth’s layers and depending on the geological conditions, different materials and additives are used.
Preventing and controlling lost circulation reduces costs, reduces drilling time and facilitates the drilling process.
The exploration and extraction of oil industrially and economically began in the mid-nineteenth century. Hundreds of years ago, this natural source was used for lighting purposes or as a lubricant.
The invention of the first internal combustion engine and its use in all forms of life today has led to an increase in demand for the extraction and exploitation of fossil fuels. The positive and negative consequences of the expansion of these activities in the oil industry, which is done in order to meet the bulk of energy supply, is an issue that has always been faced by those in charge of this industry.
Gilsonite is a mineral found in certain parts of the world and has numerous applications. Uses and application of Gilsonite in Paints, Inks, coatings and stains industry is common because of features such as adhesion, resistance to water and moisture, competitive price and etc,. Team.co has extensive experience in supplying Gilsonite to various industries locally and globally.
The applications of Gilsonite in ink, asphalt black colors, polished oils, anti-corrosion coating, cover cars to deal with UV rays, wood Stains is examined in the following.
Gilsonite usage in drilling fluid is as high-temperature, high-pressure filtration control additives in drilling mud. This mineral can be used in all oil based mud and all temperatures. Also, mixed Gilsonite is used effectively in water-based mud systems.
Gilsonite powder reduce API and HPHT fluid loss in all oil-base muds. It has the ability to stabilize drilling mud and thus prevent erosion of pit. It helps improve the overall emulsion stability, Thermal stability and suspension characteristics of most oil-base formulations. Gilsonite also increase viscosity, especially at lower temperatures due to its partial solubility and reduces torque and drag.
Mud with Gilsonite creates a narrow and strong wall inside the wells. It is used to control lost circulation in drilling formations.
For drilling in different areas with different geological structure, the capabilities of drilling methods should be examined. Studies show that most of Iran’s oil reservoirs are tougher in comparison to many countries and the formations have many cracks. For this reason, due to the lost circulation of mud in these cracks, there is always the risk of financial cost and damages.
The main priority in drilling such formations is the use of Under Balanced Drilling (UBD) method. Also in resources that are sensitive to the penetration of fluids and solids and UBD method should be used. In formations with shale fracture cracks, due to high mud lost circulation, the use of conventional drilling methods causes lots of damage in drilling operations. In these cases, the best type of drilling is to use UBD drilling with fluids such as foam. High drilling speed is an influential factor in drilling operations in these areas. However, in formations which the well wall has low strength and stability (increasing the probability of well collapse) as well as formations that swell and reduce the diameter of the well or watery formations, UBD drilling is not recommended.