Mud Circulation System

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Mud Circulation System

Drilling mud can be considered as the most important factor in the drilling process. Any problem in the production of drilling mud or mud circulation system will stop drilling operations and result in heavy fines. Proper selection of mud circulation system is effective in preventing possible breakdowns and reducing downtime. This systems are made of different parts, which will be introduced in the following.

Drilling mud problems may be due to mud composition or the mud circulating system selection. The composition of added materials to the mud is determined depending on the drilling conditions, formation structure, drilling depth etc. For example, Hematite is added to the drilling mud composition in high pressure wells to control the pressure caused by the formation. It is clear that the selection of materials to be add to the mud requires special expertise. But in this article, without considering the composition of drilling mud, the systems used to circulate the mud in drilling are examined.

 

 

Prevent freezing (Anti-Icing)

Anti-Icing operations are carried out with the aim of preventing water from freezing on roads and passages. In this method, before the onset of frost, with the help of meteorological information and by predicting the possibility of frost, antifreezing materials are spray on road surface.

Prevent ice from forming means lowering the freezing point before snow or rain by spraying materials to prevent ice from forming on the road surface. In leading countries, the first priority in snow removal operations is preventing ice from forming. In this plan, based on the environmental conditions of each region and the use of appropriate chemical compounds, the freezing point temperature of the passages is lowered.

Thus, with early preventing ice forming, the opportunity to take the necessary precautionary and executive measures is provided.

In this method, in order to control financial costs, anti-Icing operations are carried out on the routes that play an important role in the flow of vehicles, such as the main highways or important bridges in the city, at a certain time before the rain and snow.

Advantages of Preventing ice from forming

Prevent the reduction of service level on the passages.
Prevent blockage of drains.
Reduction of antifreeze materials used.
Reduction of accidents caused by frost.
Reduction of environmental impact.
In this method, substances such as Calcium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, Urea and Potassium Chloride are used.

It is should be noted that urea is less used in cities and residential areas due to its environmental damage to humans; However, due to its non-corrosive properties, this material is used to prevent ice forming and reduce slippage in the runways of airports and metal structures. Other materials are used according to their advantages and disadvantages and in accordance with the environmental conditions of the region.

Melt ice (deicing)

Melting ice and deicing is the operation required to remove snow and ice layers created on the road surface. When the snow condenses to 25 mm or more and sticks to the road surface, defrosting begins. Usually both defrosting and antifreeze activities are done together and in combination.

Deicing methods:

Chemicals and salt spraying
Salt and sand
snow removal by mechanical machines
In the calculation of defrosting costs, the costs of chemicals used, defrosting operations, collection and cleaning of materials from the road surface, compensation of environmental damages and damages on the road surface should be calculated.

Calcium Chloride

The effective composition of dissolved Calcium Chloride for ice melt is approximately 30% Calcium Chloride and 70% water by weight. Calcium Chloride as an industrial deicer is effective up to -32°C (-25°F). Calcium Chloride melts ice by releasing heat and acts faster than other common Chlorides. It removes moisture from the air even after the ice has melted, keeping the road surface moist.

Advantages of Calcium Chloride for Ice Melt (Deicing)
Better performance at lower temperatures

One of the advantages of Calcium Chloride for ice melt over other Chlorides such as Potassium Chloride, Urea, Rock Salt, Magnesium Chloride, is better performance at lower temperatures.

Calcium Chloride is effective at temperatures as low as -32 ° C. Magnesium Chloride is effective only at -18 degrees Celsius and other materials such as Rock Salt and Potassium Chloride are effective up to -7 and -3 degrees Celsius. The 14 degree difference indicates that Calcium Chloride can perform better at very low temperatures than other materials.

Due to lower freezing point than salt solutions, Cacl2 is less likely to freeze in storage tank, therefore it is more desirable to use it in very cold places.

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Drilling mud can be considered as the most important factor in the drilling process. Any problem in the production of drilling mud or mud circulation system will stop drilling operations and result in heavy fines. Proper selection of mud circulation system is effective in preventing possible breakdowns and reducing downtime. This systems are made of different parts, which will be introduced in the following.

Drilling mud problems may be due to mud composition or the mud circulating system selection. The composition of added materials to the mud is determined depending on the drilling conditions, formation structure, drilling depth etc. For example, Hematite is added to the drilling mud composition in high pressure wells to control the pressure caused by the formation. It is clear that the selection of materials to be add to the mud requires special expertise. But in this article, without considering the composition of drilling mud, the systems used to circulate the mud in drilling are examined.

 

 

Drilling mud can be considered as the most important factor in the drilling process. Any problem in the production of drilling mud or mud circulation system will stop drilling operations and result in heavy fines. Proper selection of mud circulation system is effective in preventing possible breakdowns and reducing downtime. This systems are made of different parts, which will be introduced in the following.

Drilling mud problems may be due to mud composition or the mud circulating system selection. The composition of added materials to the mud is determined depending on the drilling conditions, formation structure, drilling depth etc. For example, Hematite is added to the drilling mud composition in high pressure wells to control the pressure caused by the formation. It is clear that the selection of materials to be add to the mud requires special expertise. But in this article, without considering the composition of drilling mud, the systems used to circulate the mud in drilling are examined.

 

 

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